Gender Equality In Europe – Who Does All The Housework?
Despite great advances in women’s empowerment, women continue to undertake the majority of housework. Women’s labor-force involvement has increased considerably in recent decades. Women’s employment rates have risen considerably in both Eastern and Western Europe. As many might expect, an increase in the number of women working has not been matched by an increase in men’s involvement in the house in most countries. Women’s responsibilities have progressed from primary housekeeper to dual caregiver and earner, while men’s dedication to domestic work has remained low. The amount of time spent on household duties by both sexes differs across Europe. Nordic countries are more equitable in terms of domestic work allocation than Mediterranean countries. Former communist countries have also developed gender regimes that differ from those seen in the majority of Western countries. Women are emphasized as mothers and earners in former communist countries, whereas men are underutilized in the home sector.
Housework is done by around 79% of women in the European Union, compared to 34% of men. Sweden has the smallest gender gap among the European countries represented in the table below. Hungary and Greece have the greatest gender discrepancies.
Selected Countries By Percentage Of Men Who Do Housework/Cooking
Sweden has the least disparity in the proportion of men and women undertaking housework among the countries on the list. Housework is done by around 74% of women and 56% of men, resulting in an 18% point disparity. Swedish women currently spend less time doing housekeeping than they did five years ago. Men, on the other hand, spend much more time on housekeeping than they did ten years ago. In addition, women spend 14 minutes less time every day on unpaid household activities than they did ten years ago. Men, on the other hand, spend 11 minutes longer on average doing unpaid housework. Women spend an average of 4 hours each day on unpaid household chores, compared to 5 hours in 1990. Men currently devote an average of 3 hours and 15 minutes each day to home chores.
Denmark has the second-lowest gender disparity in housekeeping performance. Household duties are handled by around 82% of women and 55% of men, a 27 percentage point difference.
The United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom, 85% of women work unpaid at home, whereas 49% of men do. Men spend 16 hours per week on average helping out at home, while women spend 26 hours. The bulk of unpaid domestic activities are performed by women on maternity leave. Women aged 26 to 35 did the second-most home labor, trailing only women on maternity leave, who work 60 hours per week.
Spain has the fourth-smallest gender gap after the United Kingdom. Over 84% of women and 42% of men in Spain do housework. Only two out of every ten guys share home tasks equally with their partners on average. Only 16% of men cook as much as their partners or wives. Approximately 24% of men share household duties with their spouses. According to the CIS Barometer, men devote the bulk of their time on “minor home repairs.” Women are also primary caregivers, with 87.7% of women reporting to be primary caregivers for their children, compared to 5.6% of fathers. Women are frequently dissatisfied with the allocation of family responsibilities. Only 36% of women are happy with their present employment.
In France, about 80% of women undertake unpaid household work, compared to 36% of men, a 44 percentage point gap. French women, on average, spend approximately two and a half times as much time as males caring for their children. In a given week, 93% of women and 40% of men reported doing housework. Women were responsible for 73% of the ironing, while men were responsible for 9%. Women, on the other hand, reported doing 93% of the cooking, while men reported doing 50%. Women also buy the bulk of food. The study discovered that males who grew up with single mothers were more willing to share household responsibilities.In France, about 80% of women undertake unpaid household work, compared to 36% of men, a 44 percentage point gap. French women, on average, spend approximately two and a half times as much time as males caring for their children. In a given week, 93% of women and 40% of men reported doing housework. Women were responsible for 73% of the ironing, while men were responsible for 9%. Women, on the other hand, reported doing 93% of the cooking, while men reported doing 50%. Women also buy the bulk of food. The study discovered that males who grew up with single mothers were more willing to share household responsibilities.
Unpaid domestic work is undertaken by around 72% of German women and 29% of German men, implying a 43 percentage point gap. Even in dual-income households, women with full-time jobs do more housework than men. However, research has shown that gender disparities in childcare and housework have diminished little over time. In 2014, full-time working women spent 1.5 hours per day on housekeeping and 5 hours per day on child care, whereas full-time working men spent an hour and two and a half hours on the same tasks. Women spend three hours more on children and housework than men.
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Over 83% of women and 28% of men in Austria perform housework. In the 1970s, the Austrian government fought for equal home duties for men and women. Unfortunately, women continue to handle the majority of housework. In 1983, about 75% of guys indicated they would not do any housework. By 1995, the figure had dropped to 60%. The decrease was driven by an increase in the number of guys living in families, as well as an increase in the number of men performing housework. According to studies, young men are more ready to perform household duties than older men.
In Italy, 81% of women perform housework against 20% of men, a 61 percentage point gap. In Italy, women work around 21 hours more per week than men. Italian women spend around three hours more time cleaning than their partners. According to a research, 42% of respondents said that guys should help with household chores. Only 1% of respondents said they disagreed with the idea of men doing more housework. Despite prior data, the study reveals that a substantial majority of the general population wants males to be involved in domestic tasks.
In Greece, 85 percent of women do housework whereas just 16 percent of men do. According to a Hellenic Statistical Authority poll, Greek households remain largely traditional, with males working to put bread on the table and women staying at home to conduct housework. Men aged 20 to 74 spend around 1 hour and 31 minutes on housework, while women in the same age range work for 4 hours and 36 minutes.
Housework is performed by 56% of women in Hungary vs 14% of males. The country is one of the European Union’s countries with the worst gender imbalance.
Housework And Technological Change
Women’s freedom is now a reality owing to technological advancements. Over the years, labor-saving technology has freed women from time-consuming domestic responsibilities, allowing them to pursue hobbies and other interests. Tasks that used to take many hours to perform are now completed in less time and with more efficiency. Despite technological advances, most women throughout the world still perform more housework than men. Experts believe that much more has to be done to level the playing field so that women have more time to pursue personal goals. As we reach the age of artificial intelligence, such technologies will most likely perform more housekeeping, freeing up more time for both sexes.
Gender Equality In Europe: Who Does All The Housework?
|% of women who cook and/or do housework in the selected countries
|% of men who cook and/or do housework in the selected countries