What Are The Main Causes Of Droughts?

Droughts can be caused by both natural and man-made sources. Droughts are a type of natural disaster marked by below-average precipitation or a severe water supply shortage that lasts for a lengthy period of time. Droughts regularly result in famines, which can kill millions. The following are some of the reasons that might causes of drought:

Main Causes Of Droughts
Main Causes Of Droughts ( Image Credit: Flickr )

Low Levels of Precipitation

A lack of precipitation is one of the fundamental causes of a drought. Low rainfall over a lengthy period of time can result in soil dryness and crop loss. Meteorological disturbances such as extremely high temperatures and changes in wind patterns may result in less rain than usual in some locations. Droughts are more common in locations with low average rainfall, which makes them more susceptible to changes in precipitation patterns.

El Niño

El Nio events, which affect many parts of the world, are typically associated with hotter and drier weather. These occurrences are thus linked to droughts in various parts of the world at different periods, depending on the intensity of the events. El Nio events affect weather patterns in the Amazon basin, the United States, Central America, and even parts of Africa and Southeast Asia.

Dry Season

Droughts are common in areas where the seasons are long and dry. Because humidity levels are low during these seasons, water evaporation rates are substantial. As a result, bodies of water such as lakes and rivers have nearly dried up. Water shortage destroys flora and agricultural crops that rely on these water reserves. During the dry season, higher temperatures increase evaporation, aggravating the drought.

Climate Change

One of the more recent causes of drought is assumed to be climate change driven by global warming. While climate change may enhance precipitation in certain areas due to glacier melting and increasing evaporation rates from bodies of water, it will also produce droughts in others where higher temperatures would dry up the remaining stores of water.

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Human Activities

Droughts are frequently caused by irresponsible agricultural practices such as over-irrigation (depletion of water resources) and over-farming (negative influence on soil quality). Drought may also be caused by deforestation because the absence of tree cover renders soil more vulnerable to the erosional effects of wind and water. Thus, human activities can create drought or exacerbate the impact of a drought caused by weather changes.

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