Bursitis – causes, symptoms and treatment of the disease
Permanent mechanical irritation or trauma can cause bursitis – acute, subacute, or chronic inflammation of the synovial sac. The main signs of pathology are fever, pain, swelling, redness of the skin over the damaged joint. Conservative treatment is carried out, but the characteristic symptoms of chronic bursitis become the basis of the surgery.
What is bursitis?
Bursitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the axillary, subfascial, dry tendons and the subcutaneous synovial pockets. Large joint pathology is often diagnosed – elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, ankle (foot).
The inflammatory process that develops in them leads to the accumulation of exudate, an increase in the size of the synovial pockets. This is what causes acute local and systemic symptoms of bursitis.
Classification of pathology.
Depending on the location, ulnar, knee, hip and other types of bursitis are distinguished. The disease is also classified according to the etiology of the inflammatory process. It is aseptic, it develops as a result of an immune response to tissue breakdown. Often patients are diagnosed with infectious bursitis, caused by the introduction of pathogenic microorganisms, usually pathogenic bacteria, into the joint cavity.
2. Nonspecific, caused by epidermal or golden staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci The composition of the pathological exudate1. Serous: plasma with a small amount of blood cells. 2. Purulent: decomposition products of tissues, white blood cells, microorganisms.
3. Hemorrhagic: a liquid with blood impurities.
4. Fibrinous: a large amount of fibrin
Causes of the disease
Purulent inflammations (osteomyelitis, pressure ulcers) or even minor injuries, for example, abrasions, cuts, bruises, lead to the development of an acute infectious disease. Pathogenic microorganisms can penetrate the joint cavities from the primary inflammatory foci. They are usually located in the organs of the respiratory, digestive, and genitourinary systems. The following pathological conditions become the prerequisites for the development of infectious bursal disease:
smoking, alcohol abuse,
The main cause of chronic inflammation of the synovial bag is mechanical irritation, often due to sports and professional activities.
A characteristic clinical manifestation of pathology is the formation of a painful, limited, round and dense swelling. The skin above turns red, swells, smoothes. With pressure on the formation, it bends and changes slightly, confirming accumulation within the exudate.
In most cases, an external examination, anamnestic data, and a description of the patient’s symptoms are sufficient for the diagnosis. Under the clinical manifestations of bursitis, infectious, reactive rheumatoid arthritis, gout, osteoarthritis deformans can be masked. To differentiate them, X-rays and (or) magnetic resonance imaging are performed.
A puncture is used to remove a sample of synovial fluid. By performing biochemical studies, the composition of the exudate is established. The type of pathogenic microorganisms, their sensitivity to antibiotics, is also revealed.
How to treat bursitis
An integrated approach is practiced for the treatment of acute pathologies. Medicines used from various clinical and pharmacological groups, physiotherapeutic procedures, in the rehabilitation stage: massage, exercise therapy. Patients are advised to wear elastic bandages that slightly restrict movement or semi-rigid orthoses to reliably stabilize joint structures.
Even “neglected” joint problems can be cured at home! Just remember to smear it once a day. Cold compresses are used to resolve inflammatory edema: a towel immersed in cold water, a bag full of ice cubes. They are applied to the affected joints for 10-15 minutes every hour.
When choosing medications, an orthopedist or traumatologist takes into account the type of disease, its form, stage of the course. For the relief of acute pathology, injection solutions are used, medical blocks are performed. It is possible to eliminate painful sensations of moderate and weak severity by taking tablets or applying ointments.
Anti-inflammatory drugs and pain relievers.
Severe pain is eliminated by extracting pathological fluid by puncture, washing the joint cavity with glucocorticosteroid solutions, anesthetics and, if necessary, antibiotics. Also, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to reduce the severity of pain:
You can get rid of weak discomfort with ointments and gels. These are Voltaren, Fastum, Arthrosilen, Ibuprofen, Dolgit.
In the treatment of infectious pathologies, antibacterial and antimicrobial drugs are used, including sulfonamides. Before obtaining the results of the patient’s biochemical studies, broad-spectrum agents are prescribed:
clavulanic acid-protected semi-synthetic penicillins – Flemoklav, Amoksiklav, Augmentin;
2 or 3 generation cephalosporins: ceftriaxone, cefazolin, cefotaxime;
macrolides: clarithromycin, azithromycin.
After determining the resistance of pathogenic bacteria, the treatment regimen is adjusted. And at the end of antibiotic therapy, patients are advised to take a course of eubiotics.
The pathogenic bacteria in the process of growth and active reproduction emit large toxic substances in the surrounding space. They are carried throughout the body by blood flow, causing general poisoning. To eliminate harmful substances, doctors recommend drinking plenty of fluids: pure water, vegetable juices, fruit compotes, berry drinks, rosehip tea, chamomile tea.
With severe intoxication, patients are prescribed Atoxil, Albumin and to restore the water-salt balance: Hydrovit, Regidron.
Strengthening of the immune system.
If a patient with systemic inflammatory or degenerative dystrophic pathologies often develops bursitis, then strengthening of the body’s defenses is required. To increase immunity, patients are recommended to take a balanced complex of vitamins and minerals:
In addition, fat-soluble vitamins such as tocopherol, retinol, and ergocalciferol can be prescribed. Strengthening immunity allows the use of drugs with ginseng, echinacea, lemongrass.
In the subacute period and in the rehabilitation stage, 5-10 physiotherapy sessions are performed. Using electrophoresis or ultraphonophoresis, the pharmacological solutions are administered directly to the area of inflammation. Hormones, anesthetics, chondroprotectors and vitamins of group B are used.